220 species in 22 genera. Macrocarpaea is the largest genus.
only (American tropics): from Mexico to Bolivia and Paraguay.
Rainforests, cloud forests, savannas, grasslands, less often
roadsides and other disturbed habitats. Lowland to high mountains. Many
species only occur in very small, restricted areas.
subshrubs or perennial or annual herbs. Leaves sessile or petiolated. Inflorescences
usually monochasially or dichotomously branched cymes, rarely axillary
and/or with solitary flowers. Flowers (4–)5(–6)-merous, often large
and showy. Calyces (fused sepals) often thick/leathery, often with a
thickened keel on the back of each sepal. Corollas (fused petals)
tubular, funnel- or salvershaped, to campanulate. Stamens and style slightly zygomorphic
in many species. When zygomorphic, the flowers have a slightly bent
corolla tube with the anthers clustered in upper or lower part of
the corolla mouth and a style bent toward the lower side of the
corolla mouth. Anthers often with sterile apical appendages and strongly
curved (or filaments sharply bent). Pollen as monads, tetrads, or
polyads. Stigma are often broadly bilamellate. Fruit
a thin or woody capsule.
and related plants: The Helieae is most closely related to the
tribes Gentianeae and Potalieae. Within
Helieae, studies using molecular phylogenetic methods have shown that
there are three major groups - the Macrocarpaea clade (Chorisepalum,
Macrocarpaea, and Tachia), the Irlbachia clade (Irlbachia
only), and the Symbolanthus clade (Aripuana,
uses: Chelonanthus alatus is used for medicinal purposes
in the Ecuadorian Amazon.
- pollination: Bat-pollination is known from Chelonanthus
alatus (Machado et al., 1998), and flowers reminiscent of
bat-pollination occurs also in Macrocarpaea and Symbolanthus.
Hummingbird-pollination is found in pink-flowered Symbolanthus, and
is presumable also present in the red, tubular-flowered species of
Lehmanniella, and Purdieanthus. Hawkmoth-type flowers are known
from Aripuana and Chelonanthus.
(Progel) Gilg (images)
Aripuana Struwe, Maas, & V. Albert (images)
Calolisianthus Gilg (images)
Celiantha Maguire (images)
Chelonanthus Gilg (images)
Chorisepalum Gleason & Wodehouse (images)
Helia Mart. (images)
Irlbachia Mart. (images)
Lagenanthus Gilg (images)
Lehmanniella Gilg (images)
Macrocarpaea (Griseb.) Gilg (images)
Neblinantha Maguire (images)
Prepusa Mart. (images)
Purdieanthus Gilg (images)
Rogersonanthus Maguire & B. M. Boom (images)
Senaea Taub. (images)
Sipapoantha Maguire & B. M. Boom (images)
Symbolanthus G. Don (images)
Tachia Aubl. (images)
Tetrapollinia Maguire & B. M. Boom (images)
Wurdackanthus Maguire (images)
Zonanthus Griseb. (images)
L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen,
& V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and
biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal
classification. Pp. 21-309. In: L. Struwe & V. A. Albert (eds.),
Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History, Cambridge University Press,
L., P. J. M. Maas, & V. A. Albert. 1997. Aripuana
cullmaniorum, a new genus and species of Gentianaceae from
white-sands of southeastern Amazonas, Brazil. Harvard Pap. Bot. 2:
© Lena Struwe, 2002.