This tribe is the most species-rich tribe in the gentians, including circa
940-970 species in 17 genera. Gentiana is the largest genus.
temperate areas worldwide, especially in Europe, North America, Asia,
Australia, and South America. Some species also occur on mountains in
tropical areas in South and Central America, Africa, and Asia..
This group of gentians grows in many different types of habitats, such as
forests, grasslands, mountains.
The leaves often with a distinct basal rosette. Flowers 4-5-merous.
Calyx is shortly lobed to deeply divided to the base, sometimes with an intracalycine
membrane. Corolla tubular, rotate, funnelshaped, or campanulate,
violet, blue, green, red, yellow or white in color, with very short to
long lobes, sometimes with plicae (small extra lobes). Sometimes
hairy or with glands on inside of corolla, or with a nectary disk
at base of the ovary. Anthers are sagittate. Ovary stipitate
(on a gynophore) or sessile, placentation parietal. Style mostly short
or absent, rarely long and filiform. Stigma bilobed. Fruit a capsule,
rarely a berry.
and related plants: Gentianeae is closely related to the
tribes Helieae and Potalieae. Within the Gentianeae there are two
main clades, identified as two subtribes. Crawfurdia, Gentiana,
and Tripterospermum belong to subtribe Gentianinae, and all other
genera belong to subtribe Swertiinae.
uses: Many species in this tribe are used for their
medicinal properties, especially species in Gentiana and Swertia.
Gentiana is also popular in temperate rock gardens and in art and
is the group of gentians the deep-bluest gentians belong to. Gentiana
acaulis, the stemless gentian, is one of the most popular flowers in
the Alps in Europe. Halenia
is unique in the gentian family by having corollas with a spur on each
Bartonia H. L. Mühl. ex Willd.
Comastoma (Wettst.) Toyok. (images)
Frasera Walter (images)
Gentiana L. (images)
Gentianella Moench (images)
Gentianopsis Ma (images)
Halenia Borkh. (images)
Latouchea Franch. (images)
Lomatogonium A. Braun (images)
Megacodon (Hemsl.) Harry Sm. (images)
Obolaria L. (images)
Swertia L. (images)
Tripterospermum Blume (images)
Veratrilla Baill. ex Franch. (images)
L. & P. Taberlet. 1996. A phylogeny of the European gentians inferred
from chloroplast trnL (UAA)
intron sequences. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 120: 57-75.
K. B. von & J. W. Kadereit. 2001. The phylogeny of Gentianella
(Gentianaceae) and its colonization of the southern hemisphere as revealed
by nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence variation. Org. Divers. Evol. 1:
T.-N. & S.-W. Liu. 1990. The infrageneric classification of Gentiana
(Gentianaceae). Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 20: 169-192.
T.-N., S.-W. Liu, & X.-F. Lu. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of Gentiana
(Gentianaceae). Acta Phytotax. Sinica 34(5): 505-530.
L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen,
& V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and
biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal
classification. Pp. 21-309. In: L. Struwe & V. A. Albert (eds.),
Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History, Cambridge University Press,
© Lena Struwe, 2002.