Gentan Research Network logo


What's New?



Gentian Research Network

and Rutgers University:

Classification (newest)
List of genera
List by tribe

Gentian characteristics

What are gentians?

Photo gallery

Research projects

People, addresses
Literature, publications 
Add info to
this site



Common names
Ecology - Natural history

Endangered species

Ethnobotany - Uses

Gentian violet


Who eats gentians?




for kids!

Latin America
North America








Information in other languages:



This page is maintained 
by Dr. Lena Struwe 
(e-mail), and hosted by
Rutgers University


updated: 01/19/11 

Floristic treatments of Gentianaceae Centaurium

This is a list of floras that include treatments of gentians.  They are listed by continent, followed by flora title.  Note that Anthocleista, Fagraea, and Potalia were previously in the family Loganiaceae, and their floristic treatments are included here. 

See references and publications for full citation of each flora.

Africa and Madagascar

Australia and the Pacific



North America

Central America and the Caribbean

South America


Flora Capensis [South Africa], see Thiselton-Dyer (1909)

Flora of Libia, see Siddiqi (1977)

Flora of southern Africa, see Marais & Verdoorn (1963) and Verdoorn (1963)

Flora of tropical Africa, see Baker & Brown (1903-04)

Flora of tropical East Africa, see Bruce & Lewis (1960)

Flora of west tropical Africa, ed. 1., see Hutchinson & Dalziel (1931)

Flora of west tropical Africa, ed. 2., see Taylor (1963)

Flora of Zimbabwe checklist (on-line only) Gentianaceae (Hyde, 2002-2004)

Flora Zambesiaca [Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe], see Leeuwenberg (1983) and Paiva & Noguiera (1990)

Flore d’Afrique Centrale [Zaïre, Rwanda, Burundi], see Leeuwenberg & Bamps (1979) and Boutique (1972)

Flore de la Tunesie, see Pottier-Alapetite (1981)

Flore de Madagascar et des Comores, see Klackenberg (1990) and Leeuwenberg (1984)

Flore du Cameroun, see Leeuwenberg (1972)

Genera of Gentianaceae in Southern Africa, Biodiversity Explorer, South African Museum (on-line only)

Trees of southern Africa, see Coates Palgrave (1991)



Flora of Australia, see Conn et al. (1996) and Adams (1996)

Flora Australiensis, see Bentham (1869)

Flora of New South Wales [Australia], see Harden (1992)

Flora of Victoria [Australia], see Walsh & Entwisle (1993)

Flora vitensis nova [Fiji], see Smith (1988)

Handbook of the New Zealand flora, see Hooker (1867)

Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i [U.S.], see Wagner et al. (1990)

Systematic studies of Micronesian plants, see Fosberg & Sachet (1980)



A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon, see Cramer (1981)

Câyco Viêtnam, see Hô (1993)

Circumpolar arctic flora, seePolunin (1959)

Conspectus Gentianacearum Japonicarum, see Toyokuni (1963)

Flora Arctica URSS [Russia], see Tzvelev (1980)

Flora Armenii [Armenia], see Takhtajan (1980)

Flora Azerbajdzhana [Azerbadjan], see Sofieva (1957)

Flora Iranica, see Schiman-Czeika (1967)

Flora Kavkaza [Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia], see Tamamshyan (1967)

Flora Kazakhstana, see Semiotrocheva (1964)

Flora Koreana, see Nakai (1911)

Flora Malesiana [Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, New Guinea], see Leenhouts (1963)

Flora of Bhutan, see Grierson & Long (1999)

Flora of China, see Li & Leeuwenberg (1996) and Ho & Pringle (1995)

Flora of Japan, see Meyer & Walker (1965)

Flora of Java [Malaysia], see Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink, see(1965a, b)

Flora of lowland Iraq, see Rechinger (1964)

Flora of Madhya Pradesh [India], see Srivastava (1997)

Flora of Rajasthan [India], see Parmar (1991)

Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai, see Post (1933)

Flora of Taiwan, see Liu & Kuo (1978)

Flora of Thailand, see Griffin & Parnell (1997) and Ubolcholaket (1987)

Flora of the Malay Peninsula, see Ridley (1923)

Flora of the U.S.S.R., see Komarov (1952) and Grossgeim et al. (1967)

Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean islands, see Davis (1978)

Flora Sibiriae, see Zuev (1997)

Flora Tadzjikskoy SSR [Tadjikistan], see Pissjaukova (1984)

Flora Turkmenii [Turkmenistan], see Nikitin (1954)

Flora Uzbekistanica, see Cherneva (1961)

Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam, see Tirel-Roudet (1972)

Flowers of the Himalaya, see Polunin & Stainton (1984)

Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia, see Grubov (2001)

Novelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie, see Mouterde et al. (1978)

Opredelitel rasteniy Tuvinskoj ASSR [Russia], see Shaulo (1984)

Opredelitel sosudistych rasteniy Kamchatskoy oblasti [Russia], see Probatova (1981)

The alpine flora of New Guinea, see van Royen (1983)

The flora of British India [India, Bangladesh, Burma, Bhutan, Ceylon, Pakistan, Nepal], see Hooker (1885)

The flora of Orissa [India], see Saxena & Brahman (1995)

The flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic [India], see Matthew (1983)

Tree flora of Malaya [Malaysia], see Kochummen (1973)

Wayside trees of Malaya [Malaysia], see Corner (1988)



A Magyar Flóra és vegetáció rendszertaninövényföldrajzi kéziksnyve [Hungary], see Soó (1966)

Circumpolar arctic flora, seePolunin (1959)

Dansk feltflora [Denmark], see Hansen (1988)

Den nordiska floran [Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden], see Mossberg et al. (1992)

Exkursionsflora von Deutschland [Germany], see Rothmaler (1990)

Flora Arctica URSS [Russia], see Tzvelev (1980)

Flora cr Srbije [Serbia], see Jovanovich-Dunich (1973).

Flora d'Italia, see Pignatti (1982)

Flora Ekskursioniste e Shqiperise [Albania], see Demiri (1983)

Flora Europaea, see Tutin (1972)

Flora dels Països Catalans [Spain], see de Bolòs & Vigo (1995)

Flora de Mallorca [Spain], see Bonafè Barcelo (1979)

Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete [Switzerland], see Hess et al. (1972)

Flora Helvetica [Switzerland], see Lauber & Wagner (1998a, b)

Flora of Cyprus, see Meikle (1985)

Flora of Iceland, see Löve (1983)

Flora of Russia [European part of Russia], see Tzvelev & Pissjaukova (2000)

Flora of the British Isles, see Clapham et al. (1987)

Flora of the Baltic countries [Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania], see Jankeviciene et al. (1996)

Flora of the U.S.S.R., see Grossgeim et al. (1967)

Flora Polska, see Jasiewicz (1971)

Flora Portuguesa, see Sampaio (1947)

Flora regionis boreali-orientalis territoriae Europaeae URSS, see Laschenkova & Tolmatchev (1977)

Flora reipublicae popularis Bulgaricae, see Jordanov (1982)

Flora republicii populare Romîne [Romania], see Savulescu (1961)

Flora URSR [Ukraine], see Visyulina (1957)

Flora vascular de Andalucía occidental [Spain], see Valdes et al. (1987)

Flora von Deutschland und angrenzender Länder [Germany], see Schmeil (2000) and Senghas & Seybold (1993)

Flore de la Suisse et des territoires limitrophes [Switzerland], see Aeschiman & Burdet (1994)

Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France, see Coste (1990)

Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa [western and central Europe], see Hegi (1966)

Les quatre flores de France, see Fournier (1961)

Mountain flora of Greece, seeHartvig (1991)

New flora of the British Isles, see Stace (1997)

Norsk, svensk, finsk flora [Norway, Sweden, Finland], see Lid (1985)

Nouvelle flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du nord de la France et des régions voisines [Belgium, France, Luxemburg], see Lambinon et al. (1992)

Nuova flora Analitica d'Italia [Italy], see Fiori (1925)

Retkeilykasvio [Finland], see Hämet-Ahti et al. (1986)

Svensk Flora [Sweden], see Krok & Almquist (1986)


NORTH AMERICA (North American gentians)

A flora of Arizona and New Mexico [U. S.], see Tidestrom & Kittel (1941)

A flora of New Mexico [U. S.], see Martin & Hutchins (1981)

A flora of tropical Florida [U. S.], see Long & Lakela (1971)

Anderson’s flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada [Canada, U. S.], see Welsh (1974)

An illustrated flora of the northern United States, see Britton & Brown (1913)

An illustrated flora of the Pacific Northwest: Washington, Oregon, and California [U. S.], see Abrams (1951)

A Utah flora [U. S.], see Welsh (1993)

Budd’s flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces, see Looman & West (1987)

Circumpolar arctic flora, see Polunin (1959)

Colorado flora: western slope/eastern slope [U. S.], see Weber & Wittmann (1996a, b)

Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories [Canada, U. S.], see Hultén (1968)

Flora of Alberta [Canada], see Moss (1983)

Flora of Baja California [Mexico], see Wiggins (1980)

Flora of Indiana [U. S.], see Deam (1970)

Flora of Maine [U. S.], see Haines & Vining (1998)

Flora of Manitoba [Canada], see Scoggan (1957)

Flora of Missouri [U. S.], see Steyermark (1963)

Flora of the Great Plains [U. S.], see McGregor et al. (1986)

Flora of the Northeast: a manual of the vascular plants of New England and adjacent New York [U. S.], see Magee & Ahles (1999)

Flora of the Pacific Northwest [U. S.], see Hitchcock & Cronquist (1976)

Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands [Canada], see Calder & Taylor (1968)

Flora of the southeastern United States, see Small (1903)

Flora of the Yukon Territory [Canada], see Cody (1996)

Flora of West Virginia [U. S.], see Strausbaugh & Cove (1978)

Flore Laurentienne [Canada], see Marie-Victorin (1995)

Gray’s manual of botany [U. S.], see Fernald (1950)

Grønland’s flora [Greenland (Denmark)], see Böcher et al. (1978)

Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois [U. S.], see Mohlenbrock (1986)

Guide to the vascular plants of central Florida [U. S.], see Wunderlin (1982)

Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle [U. S.], see Clewell (1985)

Herbaceous plants of Maryland [U. S.], see Brown & Brown (1984)

Illustrated companion to Gleason and Cronquist’s manual [U. S.], see Holmgren (1998)

Intermountain flora [U. S.], see Cronquist et al. (1984)

Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas [U. S.], see Radford et al. (1968)

Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, see Gleason & Cronquist (1991)

Manual of the vascular plants of Texas [U. S.], see Correll & Johnston (1979)

Michigan flora [U. S.], see Voss (1996)

Plants of Iowa [U. S.], see Conard (1951)

The flora of Canada, see Scoggan (1997)

The flora of New England [U. S.], see Seymour (1969)

The flora of Nova Scotia [Canada], see Roland & Smith (1969)

The genera of Gentianaceae in the southeastern United States, see Wood & Weaver (1982)

The gentians of Canada, Alaska and Greenland, see Gillett (1963)

The Jepson manual – higher plants of California [U. S.], see Pringle (1993)

The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and
adjacent Canada, see Gleason (1963)

The vascular flora of Ohio [U. S.], see Cooperrider (1995)

The vascular plants of South Dakota [U. S.], see Van Bruggen (1976)

Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest [U. S.], see Hitchcock et al. (1959)

Vegetation and flora of the Sonoran Desert [Mexico, U. S.], see Shreve & Wiggins (1964)


CENTRAL AMERICA and the CARIBBEAN (Latin American gentians

Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands, see Liogier (1995)

Flora of Barro Colorado Island [Panama], see Croat (1978)

Flora of Bermuda, see Britton (1918)

Flora de Cuba, see Leon & Alain (1957)

Flora de la Republica de Cuba, see Thiv (2002)

Flora of Costa Rica, see Standley (1938)

Flora of Guatemala, see Williams (1969)

Flora of Panama, see Elias & Robyns (1975)

Flora of Panama, see Blackwell (1968)

Flora of the Bahama Archipelago, see Correll & Correll (1982)

Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique, see Fournet (1978)

Flowering plants of Jamaica, see Adams (1972)


SOUTH AMERICA (Latin American gentians)

A field guide to the families and genera of woody plants of northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru), see Gentry (1993)

Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru, see Zarucchi (1993)

Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador, see Pringle (1999)

Flora Brasiliensis, see Progel (1865, 1868)

Flora da Reserva Ducke [Brazil], see da S. Ribeiro et al. (1999)

Flora de Chile, see Reiche (1910)

Flora Illustrada Catarinense [Brazil], see Fabris & Klein (1971)

Flora Neotropica, see Maas & Ruyters (1986)

Flora of Ecuador, see Pringle (1995)

Flora Patagonica, see Correa (1999)

Flora of Peru, see MacBride (1959)

Flora of Suriname (Netherlands Guyana), see Jonker (1936)

Flora of the Pico das Almas, Chapada Diamantina- Bahia, Brazil, see Harvey (1995)

Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, see Struwe et al. (1999) IMAGES 

Flore de la Guyane Française, see Lemée (1953)

Libro rojo de las plantas endémicas del Ecuador 2000, see Montúfar (2000)

The botany of the Guayana Highland [Brazil, Venezuela], see Maguire (1981), Maguire & Boom (1989), Maguire & Pires (1978)


Source: This list is modified from Struwe et al. (2002).


© Gentian Research Network, 2002-2011.
For corrections and additions, contact Lena Struwe at