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This page is maintained 
by Dr. Lena Struwe 
(e-mail), and hosted by
Rutgers University
, USA

Credits

updated: 01/19/11 

tribe Chironieae
(Gentianaceae)

Overview of gentian tribal classification

Classification list arranged by genus name

Chironia

This page is under construction.

Species:  About 160 species in 23 genera.  

Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate areas worldwide.

Habitat:  Members of this group occur in a large variety of habitats, from seashores, grasslands, road sides, forests, savannas, mountains to deserts.

Characteristics:   Herbs (annuals, biennials or short-lived perennials) or sometimes herbs with a long-lived woody base (suffrutescent).

Evolution and related plants: Inside the Chironieae there are three major evolutionary lineages, classified as subtribes.  These are subtribe Canscorinae (Old World tropics), subtribe Chironieae (mainly temperate and subtropical), and subtribe Coutoubeinae (New World tropics).

Economic uses:  The most common cut-flower gentian sold under the trade name 'lisianthus' belongs to the genus Eustoma in this tribe (not to the genus Lisianthius in tribe Potalieae). 

Notes: Both Blackstonia and some Sabatia species have a higher number of calyx lobes, corolla lobes, and stamens than most gentians.  Similar supermerosity of floral parts is also found in Urogentias (Potalieae), but phylogenetic data shows that this phenomenon must have evolved independently at least three times among the gentians.

Included genera:

Bisgoeppertia Kuntze
Blackstonia Huds. (images)
Canscora Lam.
Centaurium Hill (images)
Cracosna Gagnep.
Chironia L. (images)
Cicendia Adans.
Coutoubea Aubl. (images)
Deianira Cham. & Schltdl. (images)
Eustoma Salisb. (images)
Exaculum Caruel
Geniostemon Engelm. & A. Gray
Hoppea Willd.
Ixanthus Griseb. (images)
Microrphium C. B. Clarke
Orphium E. Mey.
Phyllocyclus Kurz
Sabatia Adans. (images)
Schinziella Gilg
Schultesia Mart. (images)
Symphyllophyton Gilg

Xestaea Griseb.

Zygostigma Griseb.

 

Bibliography

Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen, & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. Pp. 21-309. In: L. Struwe & V. A. Albert (eds.), Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Thiv, M., L. Struwe, & J. W. Kadereit. 1999b [2000]. The phylogenetic relationships and evolution of the Canarian laurel forest endemic Ixanthus viscosus (Alt.) Griseb. (Gentianaceae): evidence from matK and ITS sequence variation, and floral morphology and anatomy. Pl. Syst. Evol. 218: 299-317.

Thiv, M. & Kadereit, J. W. 2002. A morphological-cladistic analysis of Gentianaceae- Canscorinae and the evolution of anisomorphic androecia in the subtribe. Syst. Bot. 27(4): 780-788.

Thiv, M. 2003. A taxonomic revision of Canscora, Cracosna, Duplipetala, Hoppea, Microrphium, Phyllocyclus, and Schinziella (Gentianaceae-Canscorinae). Blumea 48: 1-46.

 Lena Struwe, 2004

 

Gentian Research Network, 2002-2011.
For corrections and additions, contact Lena Struwe at struwe@aesop.rutgers.edu