Latin name and synonyms:
Etymology: The Greek word kotyle means a small cup or bowl, and
anthera flower, so the meaning is "cup-shaped flower".
are 4 species in this genus.
Cotylanthera is distributed mainly in Southeast Asia, from
Malesia (New Guinea to the Philippines) and reaches the Himalayas (Yunnan,
Sikkim, and Nepal).
These leafless herbs grow in decomposing leaf litter on the forest
Small, saprophytic, non-green herbs
with not or sparsely branched stems. Leaves scale-like. Inflorescences
terminal, cymose, few-flowered, sometimes with only one flower. Flowers
4-merous, actinomorphic to slightly zygomorphic (style might be bent).
Calyx with nearly free lobes, not winged. Corolla, blue to pale blue,
fused closed to
oblong to narrowly oblong and spreading. Stamens inserted in corolla
mouth, exserted from corolla, anthers opening with apical pore, sometimes
fused. Style threadlike; stigma small, capitate. Ovary bilocular;
placentas axile. Fruit probably a
capsule. Seeds oblong.
and related plants: Cotylanthera
is closely related to Exacum.
uses: None known.
is one of several saprophytic, chlorophyll-free gentians, but it is not
related to the other ones of this type: Voyria
species (synonyms in parenthesis) and their distribution:
Thailand, Myanmar, Nepal
Sikkim, Bhutan, Yunnan
Malesia: Java to New
H. 1975. A new species of Cotylanthera
(Gentianaceae) from Philippines, with a conspectus of the genus. J. Jap.
Bot. 50: 321-328.
L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen,
& V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and
biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal
classification. Pp. 21-309. In: L. Struwe & V. A. Albert (eds.),
Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History, Cambridge University Press,
Yuan, Y.-M., S. Wohlhauser, M.
Möller, P. Chassot, G. Mansion, J. Grant, P. Küpfer, & J. Klackenberg.
2003. Monophyly and relationships of the tribe Exaceae (Gentianaceae)
inferred from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences. Molecular
Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 500-517. (pdf)
© L. Struwe, 2004